Friday, May 22, 2020

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Manual Inventory Management

Inventory management is an integral part of businesses. There are manual and automated management systems each one having its own advantages and disadvantages. Problems with manual system need to be analyzed, and take steps to consider to see if an automated system is more feasible for the business. The business process assessment needs to be in the equation as well as software capabilities and hardware needs. INVENTORY MANAGEMENT Most businesses, regardless of their size, small or large, carry inventory. The inventory can be from raw material to finished products, but it needs to be counted and tracked manually or with an automated system. Regardless of the system used, it is important to maintain stock at the right levels as well as†¦show more content†¦There are also disadvantages with the manual inventory system. It can be labor intensive to run by having to constantly monitor the inventory every time a sale takes place to ensure that stocking levels are appropriate. Prone to human errors is another disadvantage of the manual inventory system. The manual inventory system relies on people s efficiency to record the sale in a timely manner and to count the items correctly to avoid increasing inventory levels and its carrying costs, or not having enough product on hand to fulfill an order. Some of the carrying cost to consider are warehousing storage, insurance, taxes, depreciat ion, and breakage among others.  © Fishbowl Inventory A business owner wanting to convert a manual inventory system to an automated system must have detailed processes that take place with the current system and then begin to change it to what he or she wants it to be. With the new system design, employees performing the current tasks regularly, need to be included in the new designing process. A thorough business process assessment must be done to be able to assess the business process efficiently. The report should list all aspects of the business, requirements and trade demands as well, to measure its processes effectively. Any processes happening behind the scenes need to be account and make changes necessary to the procedures to ensure the process is complete. The business owner must keep in mind that â€Å"the purpose of the inventoryShow MoreRelatedInventory Systems Paper1372 Words   |  6 PagesInventory Systems Summary Inventory control systems are used so that companies can track materials or products. Before technology was so readily available, employees of companies had a harder time tracking inventory. Today one can go into a large retailer and ask an employee to check if an item is in stock and all the employee would have to do is check a little hand held device. The four types of inventory systems that Team A decided to research and discuss were: Advanced Tracking System (ATS)Read MoreRelated Literature of Sales and Inventory System2506 Words   |  11 PagesInventory Systems Summary According to the U.S. Small Business Administration, â€Å"Inventory refers to stocks of anything necessary to do business† (U.S. Small Business Administration, 2010, pp 1-2). The U.S. Small Business Administration publication describes what constitutes successful inventory management (balancing cost versus benefits of inventory), including 1) Maintaining a wide assortment without spreading the rapidly moving items too thin, 2) Increasing inventory turnover without sacrificingRead MoreThe Marketing Strategy Of The Clayton Liquors1228 Words   |  5 Pagescash returns of 17 % in 2008-2009. The infrastructure and employees cost are nominal in 2008. The employees’ costs were increased by 35% from 2008 to now. The inventory and sales system are manual now in Clayton Liquors. The liquor store sells regular beverages such as sodas, juices and energy drinks along with liquor. The range of inventory has been grown tremendously from 2008 to now. The Clayton liquors gradually developed its business year by year. The initial focus of the business was on gatheringRead More1.Introduction. The Purpose Of This Report Is To Examine1390 Words   |  6 Pagespharmaceutical companies, uses several systems, such as vendor managed inventory, decision support system and e-procurement, in their business operations. The next part of this report introduces the technology implementation barriers when applying these syste ms and models in the process management. The report closes with giving some solutions to tackle the technology problems and barriers to the effective implementation of supply chain management. 2. Principles, techniques, practices and IT solutions for improvedRead MoreRadio Frequency Identification Technology And Information Sharing Platform For Storage1542 Words   |  7 PagesIdentification Technology and Information Sharing Platform Enhancing Storage Efficiency in Modern Logistics Warehouse Management Modern logistics is more intelligent and integrative than traditional logistics, there are various techniques in the field of logistics such as RFID Technology (Radio Frequency Identification), ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) and RF WMS (Radio Frequency Warehouse Management System). These techniques put forward 20 years ago, but it seems to be unrealistic at that time. Thus, theseRead MoreInformation System Proposal1028 Words   |  5 PagesContents Introduction1 Types of organizational systems for Joe’s Record Store2 Transaction Processing System3 Management Information System4 Executive Dashboard5 Decision Support System6 Office Automation System†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.7 Advantages of Information Systems†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦8 Disadvantages of Information Systems†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.9 Conclusion†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Read MoreE Logistics Warehouse Management System1320 Words   |  6 Pages†¢ E-logistics warehouse management system A warehouse management system (WMS) is a software application that supports the day-to-day operations in a warehouse. WMS programs enable centralized management of tasks such as tracking inventory levels and stock locations. There are different types of modules that are an important part of the warehouse system management. Modules: ïÆ'Ëœ Customer details and Administration model. ïÆ'Ëœ Sales Orders ïÆ'Ëœ Warehouse Management ïÆ'Ëœ Automated Billing from Order ïÆ'Ëœ ReportsRead MoreInformation Systems Proposal Essay955 Words   |  4 Pagesboth computer-based and noncomputer based, but different types are needed to be successful. For this type of business, it would be essential to include a functional area IS system, a transaction processing system, an office automation system, a management information system, a supply chain information system, and an electronic commerce system for full capacity use. For a smooth operation, this information structure will assist in creating activity reports, track credit card sales, handle payrollRead MoreSupply Chain Management And Tracking Persistence And Different Industries1310 Words   |  6 Pagesused in the supply chain management and tracking persistence and different industries. In logistics management is to confirm the accessibility of resource at minimum cost for production. Make sure they deliver on time the products of low cost to the customer. Logistics is the process of strategically man aging finding and storage of materials, part and complete inventory through organizational it’s selling channels in such a way that current futures profits are take advantage of through cost effectiveRead MoreManagement Accounting For Costs And Control1370 Words   |  6 Pages ACC512 Management Accounting for Costs Control Assessment Item 1 Midhun Ramachandran Student ID: 11594000 Class: Wednesday 9am-12pm Lecture - Dhanushka Wijayakantha â€Æ' Answer 1- Management accounting The three elements that drive or influence management accounting work are: Compliance- It refers to the need to fulfil both external regulations as well as reporting requirements. Accounting personnel’s need to furnish proper recognition of expenses and revenues, and estimate assets and

Friday, May 8, 2020

Cyber Attacks And Its Effects On The United States

Most ISIS practice customs from the 7th century, but the methods they use to fight a war are 21st century techniques. ISIS have an advanced computer network that uses social media to attract terrorists worldwide to help them attack countries like the United States. Many countries have been victims of cyber attacks but may not realize it until long after the security breach occurred. In June of 2015, the Office of Personnel Management found out that it was being hacked. The hack had been going on for several months before authorities realized it. It was one of the largest security breaches in United States history. With the news of security hacks finally reaching the public, many people question the government and wonder if it can adequately protect itself from future attacks. The attacks from ISIS are making people feel uncomfortable and unsecure. Many people are beginning to realize how serious the ISIS and their online schemes are. â€Å"The United States of America is under atta ck,† warned Rep. Elijah Cummings during a House Oversight and Government Affairs Committee hearing in June of 2015. (Law Street) Katherine Archueta is the director of OPM. She faced a lot criticism at the hearing for not updating the databases, because she was already aware of the security issues. An audit was carried out on OPM on November of 2014, not long before the breach. It revealed that several databases still did not meet federal security standards. It was known that many of the databasesShow MoreRelatedCyber Terrorism1716 Words   |  7 PagesChinese hackers targeted United States government sites, after an accidental bombing of a Chinese embassy in Belgrade. During this attack, government sites were hijacked and some sites suffered a denial of service attack. Most recently, it was suspected that Bank of America was the victim of a cyber terrorism attack; although no definitive evidence is available to substantiate that claim.   Cyber terror attacks pose a threat a gainst the national security of the United States. In order to fully comprehendRead MoreCyber Warfare Is The New Warfare Domain1528 Words   |  7 Pages the United States should preemptively attack the opposing country using their cyber warfare capabilities. II. Explanation of thesis and short summary. Cyber warfare is the new warfare domain. Understanding how to morally utilize the newfound capabilities will assist the United States to maintain military dominance as well as mitigate possible immoral tragedies. Cyber warfare and war envelops a vast array of topics available for discussion. Therefore, the topics of interest within cyber warfareRead MoreCyber Deterrence And Its Impact On Western Europe1518 Words   |  7 PagesWhat is Cyber Deterrence? Merriam-Webster defines deterrence as the act of making someone decide not to do something or the act of preventing a particular act or behavior from happening (Merriam-Webster, 2015) . This can be applied to the cyber realm in the sense that we need to deter terrorists, state actors and non-state actors from attempting attacks on U.S. networks. To understand how to apply cyber deterrence we have to look at past policies or theories on deterrence. Deterrence theory firstRead MoreCyber Terrorism And Threats Of Information System1688 Words   |  7 PagesCyber-Terrorism and Threats to Information System National security has been top priority of the United States after World War II. This is due to the fact that the United States before this time was relatively an isolationist country with no influence in the world. As a result national security was not important, this changed post World War II. The United States found themselves among the top, overnight they went from being new and not listened to, to becoming one of the major players in the worldRead MoreInformation Is A Source Of Power In International Relations.967 Words   |  4 Pagessource of power in international relations. Technology is the capability by which states store information. More so now than ever, countries heavily rely on information technology and data storage in order to facilitate the basic functioning of a state. However, when any state places enough importance on a resource of power, that resource becomes a target. An attack on informational structures of a state are cyber-attacks or â€Å"the use of com putational technologies in cyberspace for malevolent and destructiveRead MoreCyber Security, A Government And Private Industry Affair1686 Words   |  7 PagesCyber-security, a government and private industry affair Introduction The role of computers in business operations is growing with each wake. Computers have helped entities boost efficiency, speed up service and product delivery and take consumer interaction to another level. However, this new wave has not come without its challenges. Cybercrimes pose a threat to information security and privacy, which is a concern for private and public institutions alike. The United States has developed laws thatRead MoreCyber Warfare And Global Affairs1543 Words   |  7 Pagescan steal information. Even countries are using the cyber domain as a separate battlefield to fulfill their missions and acquire information. Cyberwar is relatively a new term to describe: an Internet-based conflict involving politically motivated attacks on information and information systems. But the definition is constantly evolving with time and the more knowledge the public acquires about these conflicts. Although the idea of explaining cyber warfare is far too vast and bound to only rea dily availableRead MoreCyber Security : New Law1719 Words   |  7 PagesCyber Security: New laws in United States and Their Impact Throughout the United States today there are many attempted hacks going on right now, most unsuccessful, but some are successful. Major businesses as well as minor businesses have had to invest in a good security systems and making backups of data to protect themselves, as well as their clients, from attempted hacking and the risk of sensitive information being leaked out ( such as social security or credit card numbers). As a result, thereRead MoreThe Patriot Act Title Vii Section 814 And 8161429 Words   |  6 Pagesupon citizens of the United States, the aim of this paper is describe in depth The Patriot Act Title VII Section 814 and 816. These sections of the Patriot Act protects the citizens of The United States from the world’s newest form of terror; Cyber-Terrorism. The aim is to explain this law, its adequacies, and inadequacies in detail and to offer suggestions and solutions for its shortcomings. Commission of Cyber Terrorism In 2013, a man, investigators named the â€Å"Sexual Cyber Terrorist† extorted overRead MoreAirport Security : Technology Versus Common Sense1476 Words   |  6 PagesVirginia from a series of ruthless coordinated terrorist attacks which were carried out in the air. These attacks forever changed airport security measures throughout the United States and the World. The attacks resulted in the immediate creation of the Transportation Security Administration, which was stood up to increase airport security measure to prevent repeating such horrible acts on United States soil. Sixteen years later, the United States is a safer country and airport security has improved

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Design of Industrial Robots Free Essays

string(136) " of maps and informations, creative activity of user interfaces, and interfacing with plans written in other linguistic communications\." Abstraction Today, industrial automaton is used in assorted intents such as welding, picture, choice and topographic point, production review, and proving. Because of its popular, industrial automaton has become interesting field, many companies, research centres and scientists spend much of money, clip to better features of industrial automaton. Simulation is a cardinal competency for both robot makers, users and scientists to better automaton public presentation, safety and cut down automaton cost, power, clip. We will write a custom essay sample on Design of Industrial Robots or any similar topic only for you Order Now In this thesis, brief kinematics, kineticss and control theory are mentioned ; equations from these theories are applied for R-R and R-R-R operator, so these consequences are compared with simulation consequences to verify simulation consequences. In add-on, a simple existent theoretical account is built with 2 dynamixel servo motors ; the existent theoretical account can make simple work such as traveling point to indicate, following consecutive line. The simulations of automaton operator are performed by Recurdyn-Colink and Recurdyn-Matlab/Simulink. Forward and reverse kinematics are used to simulation automaton operator to execute progress trajectory way, the consequences from these simulations are used in kineticss subdivision. PD feedforward control besides is indicated, the control system based on independent articulation control, which frequently is known as single-input/ single-output system. These consequences from simulation are tantamount with theory. These consequences besides provide a batch of utile information for a batch of intents such as layout rating to avoid obstruction, optimisation flight way, kinematics, kineticss study. Keywords: automaton operator, kinematics, kineticss, feedforward control. 1 Introduction Motivation and history of industrial automaton Today, we can run into industrial automaton in many mills in the universe. Applications of industrial automatons include welding, picture, choice and topographic point ( packing or SMT line ) , production review, and proving. Harmonizing to the International Federation of Robotics ( IFR ) , by the terminal of 2011, there were at least 1,153,000 operational industrial automatons. And IFR estimated the world-wide gross revenues of industrial automatons about US $ 8.5 billion. If cost of package, peripherals and systems technology are included, the industrial automaton market was estimated US $ 25.5 billion in 2011. Therefore, industrial automaton has been become an interesting field. Along with development of industrial automaton, simulation and theoretical account of industrial automatons are of import. They can supply a batch of utile information for many intents such as layout rating, kinematic, dynamic survey, off-line scheduling to avoid obstruction in the undertaking infinite and design mechanical construction of automatons. The history of industrial automaton has associated with the development of computing machine aided design ( CAD ) and computing machine aided fabrication ( CAM ) systems. In 1954, George Devol applied for the first robotics patents ( granted in 1961 ) . In 1956, Devol and Joseph F. Engelberger formed the world’s foremost robot company was Unimation which was based on Devol’s original patents and Engelberger has been called as the male parent of robotics. Unimation has been built with hydraulic actuators and programmed in joint co-ordinates. The angle of each articulation was stored during a teaching stage and replayed in operation. In the 70s the automaton industry increased really rapidly because of the tremendous investings by the automotive industry. In Europe, ABB Robotics and KUKA Robotics brought automatons to the market in 1973. ABB Robotics introduced IRB 6, it was become the first commercially operator which controlled all electric by micro-processor in the universe. The first two IRB 6 automatons were installed in production for crunching and smoothing pipe decompression sicknesss in 1974. In 1973 KUKA Robotics built its first automaton, FAMULUS, besides one of the first articulated automatons have driven six electromechanically axes. In US, many US companies entered the field, including elephantine companies such as General Electric, and General Motors ( a joint venture formed by General Motors and FANUC LTD of Japan called FANUC Robotics ) . Other companies besides started robotics concern such as Automatix and Adept Technology, Inc. In 1984, Unimation was acquired by Westinghouse Electric Corporati on for 107 million U.S. dollars. After that Westinghouse sold Unimation to Staubli Faverges SCA of France in 1988, which is still doing articulated automatons for general industrial and cleanroom applications and even bought the robotic division of Bosch in late 2004. Hardware and Software During this thesis, three package ( RecurDyn, SolidWorks, Matlab ) have been used to work out this thesis assignment. Dynamixel servo motor besides was used for experimental intents. RecurDyn V8R2 RecurDyn is developed by FunctionBay, Inc. which is a professional CAE company and provides MultiBody Dynamics ( MBD ) . RecurA ­Dyn is a modern CAE package suite which offers the alone combination of Multibody Dynamics, Finite Element Analysis and Controls. Dynamic Rigid and Flexible Body Analysis to the full integrated additive and nonlinear Finite Element Analysis supply item information of realistic theoretical accounts for design surveies and bettering merchandise public presentation. By utilizing FE mesh, RecurDyn can imitate overall gesture every bit good as local distortions, strains and emphasiss. RecurDyn CoLink, an incorporate signal flow oriented control design tool. It provides off-line simulation of mechatronic systems, traveling far beyond the classical Co-Simulation attack. If a elaborate Recurdyn multi flexible organic structure dynamic works theoretical account is used, the user can cut down the figure of cringles during the practical accountant parametric quantity optimisation procedure. In add-on, RecurDyn besides can link with Matlab/Simulink which has a batch of block libraries, plan linguistic communication tool, etc. for dynamic system. Last but non least, RecurDyn has supported a batch of CAD package which are used as the Parasolid Kernel plan. SolidWorks SolidWorks is really popular 3D mechanical computing machine aided design package which runs on Microsoft Windows. It is established by Dassault Systemes SolidWorks Corp. It used Parasolid Kernel attack to make theoretical accounts and assemblies. Presently, over 2 million applied scientists and interior decorator usage SolidWorks at more than 165000 companies in whole universe. Matlab MATLAB is a numerical computer science environment and fourth-generation scheduling linguistic communication including C, C++ , Java, and FORTRAN. Established and developed by MathWorks, MATLAB is good known for matrix uses, plotting of maps and informations, creative activity of user interfaces, and interfacing with plans written in other linguistic communications. You read "Design of Industrial Robots" in category "Essay examples" In add-on, Simulink is an add-on merchandise with block libraries, informations flow graphical plan linguistic communication tool for mold, simulation, and analysing multi-domain dynamic and embedded systems. Dynamixel DYNAMIXEL is a consecutive high public presentation networked actuators for automatons developed by ROBOTIS. DYNAMIXEL can be used for multi-joint robot systems such as robotic weaponries, robotic manus, bi-pedal automaton, hexapod automaton, snake automaton, kinematic art, animatronics and mechanization, etc†¦ DYNAMIXEL can be controlled utilizing Personal computer through USB2Dynamixel by many package such as Matlab, python, Microsoft Visual Studio ( C++ , C # ) , Visual Basic, Java, LabVIEW, occultation, ROS ( TTL/RS485/RS232 communicating ) . DYNAMIXEL besides can be controlled utilizing sole accountant such as CM-5 ( ATMega128 ) , CM-700 ( ATMega2561 ) , CM-510 ( ATMega2561 ) , CM-530 ( ARM Cortex M3 ) . img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.001.png"/ Fig1. Dynamixel servo motor Outline part Chapter 2. Background theory 2.1 Positions, Orientations, and Frames 2.1.1 Position In a co-ordinate system, any point can place with a 3Ãâ€"1 place vector in the existence. The place of point P in co-ordinate system is ordered set of three Numberss. img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.002.png"/ img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.003.png"/ Fig2. Vector comparative to border { A } 2.1.2 Orientation 2.1.2 Frames In robotics, the state of affairs of a place and an orientation brace arises so frequently is called a frame, which is a set of four vectors including one vector describes place and 3 vectors describe orientation. The base frame, { B } The base frame has place at the base of the automaton operator. It is appended to a unmoving portion of the automaton and frequently called link 0. img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.004.png"/ Fig3. The criterion frame The station frame, { S } The station frame has location in a task-relevant, in the figure above, it is at the corner of a tabular array which the automaton is to work, and all motions of the operator are implemented comparative to it. Sometimes, it is besides called as the existence frame, universe frame or the undertaking frame. The carpus frame, { W } The carpus frame { W } is fastened to the last nexus of the operator. { W } frequently has its beginning fixed at a point called the carpus of the operator, and { W } will travel with the last nexus of the operator. The tool frame, { T } The tool frame { T } is appended to the terminal of any tool the automaton happens to be keeping. { T } is normally located with its beginning between the fingertips of the automaton when the manus is empty. The end frame, { G } The end frame has location to which the automaton is to travel the tool. At the terminal of the gesture, the tool frame should be brought to happenstance with the end frame. Chapter 3 Operator Kinematicss Kinematicss is the scientific discipline of gesture including the place, the speed, the acceleration, and all higher order derived functions of the place variables. This chapter has 4th subdivisions: the Denavit-Hartenberg ( D-H ) parametric quantities, the forward kinematics, the opposite kinematics, the Jacobian. 3.1 Denavit-Hartenberg Any robot operator can be described kinematically by the values of four measures for each nexus. Two describe the nexus itself, and two describe the link’s connexion to a adjacent nexus. The definition of mechanisms by 4th measures is a convention normally called the Denavit-Hartenberg notation. img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.005.png"/ Fig4. Description of D-H parametric quantities aI= the distance from ZIto Zi+1measured along TenI img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.006.png"= the angle from ZIto Zi+1measured about TenI vitamin DI= the distance from Teni-1to XImeasured along ZI img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.007.png"= the angle from Teni-1to XImeasured about ZI 3.2 Forward Kinematicss Forward kinematics is used to calculate the place and orientation of the tool frame from joint parametric quantities. The transmutation from frame { one } to border { i-1 } img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.008.png"( 3.1 ) The nexus transmutations is multiplied together to happen the individual transmutation that relates frame { N } to border { 0 } img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.009.png"( 3.2 ) 3.2.1 R-R operator forward kinematics Lengths of two links are L1 and L2. img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.010.png"/ Fig5. R-R nexus frame assignment Link I aI vitamin DI I 1 0 0 0 1 2 0 Liter1 0 2 Table1. D-H parametric quantities of R-R operator Computational transmutation matrices of each nexus img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.011.png"( 3.3 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.012.png"( 3.4 ) Therefore,img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.013.png"/ img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.014.png"( 3.5 ) 3.2.2 R-R-R operator forward kinematics img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.015.png"/ Fig6. R-R-R operator parametric quantities I img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.016.png"/ img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.017.png"/ img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.018.png"/ img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.019.png"/ 1 0 0 img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.020.png"/ img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.021.png"/ 2 -90 0 0 img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.022.png"/ 3 0 img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.023.png"/ img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.024.png"/ img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.025.png"/ 4 -90 img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.026.png"/ img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.027.png"/ 0 Table2. D-H parametric quantities of R-R operator Transformation matrix for each nexus: img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.028.png"( 3.6 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.029.png"( 3.7 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.030.png"( 3.8 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.031.png"( 3.9 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.032.png"( 3.10 ) The transmutation matriximg alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.033.png"is gained by matrix generation of the single nexus matrices. At first,img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.034.png"is gained by multiplyingimg alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.035.png"andimg alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.036.png" img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.037.png"/ =img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.038.png"( 3.11 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.039.png"/ =img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.040.png"( 3.12 ) Finally img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.041.png"/ =img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.042.png"/ =img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.043.png"( 3.13 ) Here, img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.044.png"( 3.14 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.045.png"( 3.15 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.046.png"( 3.16 ) The matriximg alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.047.png"establishes the kinematics of R-R-R automaton operator ; it expresses the relationship between frame { 4 } and frame { 0 } about place and orientation. 3.3 Inverse Kinematicss Inverse kinematics is survey of happening the needed articulation angles to put the tool frame, { T } , comparative to the station frame, { S } . The reverse kinematics job is well harder than the forward kinematics job. Unlike forward kinematics which ever exist solution, solution for reverse kinematics may non be. The being of a solution defines the workspace of a operator. If the exist solution, there can even be an infinite figure of solutions, for instant â€Å"elbow up† and â€Å"elbow down† solutions. 3.3.1 Using for R-R Transformation from frame { 2 } to border { 0 } is mentioned by forward kinematics. img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.048.png"/ In frame { 2 } , the co-ordinate of point P is [ L20 0 1 ] . In the frame { 0 } , the co-ordinate of point P is [ten Y0 1 ] . Therefore img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.049.png"/ img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.050.png"( 3.17 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.051.png"( 3.18 ) Square booth equations so add them: img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.052.png"( 3.19 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.053.png"( 3.20 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.054.png"( 3.21 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.055.png"( 3.22 ) Writingten, Yin the signifier img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.056.png"( 3.23 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.057.png"( 3.24 ) Where img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.058.png"( 3.25 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.059.png"( 3.26 ) If img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.060.png"( 3.27 ) And img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.061.png"( 3.28 ) Then img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.062.png"( 3.29 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.063.png"( 3.30 ) Equation ( 3.23 ) and ( 3.24 ) can be written as img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.064.png"( 3.31 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.065.png"( 3.32 ) So img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.066.png"( 3.33 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.067.png"( 3.34 ) Therefore, img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.068.png"( 3.35 ) Finally, equation for?1 img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.069.png"( 3.36 ) See equation ( 3.22 ) , minus or plus gestural corresponds positions of R-R operator. In this state of affairs, â€Å"elbow up† and â€Å"elbow down† are mentioned. img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.070.jpg"/ Fig7. Two positions of R-R operator 3.3.1 Using for R-R-R From forward kinematics of R-R-R operator img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.041.png"/ So, img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.071.png"( 3.37 ) From equation ( 3.6 ) , Inverting matriximg alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.072.png"/ img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.073.png"( 3.38 ) Substitute in ( 3.37 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.074.png"( 3.39 ) So, img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.075.png"( 3.40 ) See about trigonometric permutations img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.076.png"( 3.41 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.077.png"( 3.42 ) Where img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.078.png"( 3.43 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.079.png"( 3.44 ) Using ( 3.41 ) and ( 3.42 ) , equation ( 3.40 ) can be written as img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.080.png"( 3.45 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.081.png"( 3.46 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.082.png"( 3.47 ) So img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.083.png"( 3.48 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.084.png"( 3.49 ) Finally, the solution forimg alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.085.png": img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.086.png"( 3.50 ) See elements ( 1,4 ) and ( 3,4 ) of the matrix in the right-hand of equation ( 3.39 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.087.png"( 3.51 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.088.png"( 3.52 ) Square both ( 3.51 ) and ( 3.52 ) so add the resulting equations img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.089.png"( 3.53 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.090.png"( 3.54 ) Or img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.091.png"( 3.55 ) Where img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.092.png"( 3.56 ) Equation ( 3.55 ) is of the same signifier as ( 3.40 ) so can be solved by the same method. Therefore, solution forimg alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.093.png"is: img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.094.png"( 3.57 ) So find solution forimg alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.095.png", consider: img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.096.png"/ img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.097.png"( 3.58 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.098.png"( 3.59 ) Comparing both the ( 1,4 ) and ( 2,4 ) elements of matrix in right-hand of ( 3.59 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.099.png"( 3.60 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.100.png"( 3.61 ) These equations can be solved at the same time forimg alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.101.png"andimg alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.102.png" img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.103.png"( 3.62 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.104.png"( 3.63 ) From equation ( 3.62 ) and ( 3.63 ) , img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.105.png"( 3.64 ) Becauseimg alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.106.png", therefore the concluding solution forimg alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.107.png"is: img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.108.png"( 3.65 ) The subtraction or plus mark in ( 3.50 ) and ( 3.57 ) do four possible position of operator. img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.109.png"/ Fig8. Fourth positions of R-R-R operator 3.4 Jacobians Relationship between the joint speed and the Cartesian speed is determined Jacobian img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.110.png"/ WhereVis a speed vector in Cartesian and ? is the vector of joint angles, J ( ? ) is Jacobian. The Jacobian has figure of rows is peers the figure of grade of freedom in the Cartesian infinite, and figure of columns is equal the figure of joint. For case, a general automaton with six articulations, The Jacobian is matrix of 6Ãâ€"6,img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.111.png"is 6Ãâ€"1, and Cartesian speedVis 6x1with 3Ãâ€"1 additive speed vector and 3Ãâ€"1 rotational speed vector. Example for R-R operator theoretical account The Jacobian can be written a 2Ãâ€"2 matrix which relates joint speed to end-effector speed. The location of point P ( end-effector ) is (ten, Y) so, from equation ( 3.17 ) and ( 3.18 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.112.png"( 3.66 ) Derivative ( 3.66 ) img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.113.png"( 3.67 ) Or img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.114.png"( 3.68 ) So, the Jacobian in frame { 0 } is img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.115.png"( 3.69 ) Other progress of Jacobian is invertible. From ( 3.70 ) , joint rate can be calculated with a certain speed vector in Cartesian co-ordinate. Note that most operators will hold values of ? where the Jacobian turns into singular. img alt="" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/0919186.116.png"( 3.70 ) Chapter 4 Manipulator Dynamics In this chapter, equations of gesture for operator with torsions applied by actuators or external forces applied to the operator are mentioned. Chpater 5 Trajectory and Control Mentions [ 1 ] John J. Craig, 2005, Introduction to Robotics Mechanics and Control, 3rded. , Pearson Education, Inc. [ 2 ] Ahmed A. Shabana, 2005, Dynamics of Multibody Systems, 3rded. , Cambridge University Press. [ 3 ] Reza N. Jazar, 2010, Theory of Applied Robotics Kinematics, Dynamics, and Control, 2neodymiumed. , Springer. [ 4 ] RECURDYN, 2012, RecurDyn/ Solver Theoretical Manual, 8Thursdayed. , FunctionBay, Inc. [ 5 ] Frank L.Lewis, Darren M.Dawson, Chaouki T.Abdallah, 2004, Robot Manipulator Control Theory and Practice, 2neodymiumed. , Marcel Dekker, Inc. [ 6 ] Wikipedia How to cite Design of Industrial Robots, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Lilian Fadermans Queer

Lilian Faderman’s main argument centered on the thesis that some members of the gay and lesbian community â€Å"have realized the political power that is inherent in renaming oneself, and the effectiveness of taking a word and diffusing its sting through claiming it as your own† (Faderman, 2004, p.543). She was referring to the word â€Å"queer† and how it had evolved as a pejorative term hurled at gays and lesbians to a term that was accepted by the gay and lesbian community.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Lilian Faderman’s Queer specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The first time Faderman heard the word queer, she was still in elementary school. She did not know its meaning. But when she embraced the lesbian lifestyle, she learned to hate the significance of this word in her life. The reason of her annoyance is linked to the fact that â€Å"queer† was a term used as an insult. Sh e was also offended because the word had nonsexual connotations that exemplified concepts related to the terms weird, eccentric and suspicious. The gay and lesbian community was not the first to use this strategy. Faderman acknowledged the fact that it was the African-American community who first utilized this tactic when they adopted the term â€Å"black† and coined slogans to diffuse the negative impact of the above mentioned word. A good example of the slogan was a phrase â€Å"Black is beautiful.† Faderman added that by using this stratagem, the aggrieved party was able to take the power of the pejorative term to hurt and transform it into a mechanism used to heal wounded feelings and injured pride. Faderman also pointed out that the lesbian and gay communities were not limited to the word queer when it came to the need to transform the meaning of a derogatory word. In the past, there were other labels that gay and lesbian attempted to redefine and finally succeede d to do. However, Faderman said that even if many claimed victory in this subject matter, it must have been made clear that there were other members of the gay and lesbian community who objected to the use of the term. The impact of the word created a discomfort within them, and they argued that they still considered the term as an insult to themselves and their identity. Faderman, however, made the testimony that for those who embraced the word queer, the reaction could be divided into two different groups. The first group reacted in a way that resulted in lessening the impact of the pejorative term. The second group, on the other hand, used the term as a battle cry.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More With regards to the second group, they created a new community with an advocacy. They named their organization Queer Nation. It was reminiscent of the radical militant tactics of the 1960s. Representatives of the second group argued that there was a need to replace the term gay. In the past, the word gay was used as defiant label, but today, its meaning and connotation have changed to suggest that the term exclude blacks, poor people and women. Faderman ended the article by saying that the new term became a fighting word. The intended effect is not only to mitigate the negative impact of the pejorative word. In some quarters, the word queer was not just a battle cry but became a word of pride and a warning to heterosexuals that members of the gay and lesbian community are not going to compromise what they believe in. Reference Faderman, L. (2004). Exploring language. PA: Pennsylvania State University Press. This essay on Lilian Faderman’s Queer was written and submitted by user Bruno Ward to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Biography of Mary McLeod Bethune, Civil Rights Activist

Biography of Mary McLeod Bethune, Civil Rights Activist Mary McLeod Bethune (born  Mary Jane McLeod; July 10, 1875–May 18, 1955) was a trailblazing African-American educator and civil rights leader. Bethune, who strongly believed that education was the key to equal rights, founded the groundbreaking Daytona Normal and Industrial Institute (now known as the Bethune-Cookman College) in 1904. She also opened a hospital, served as CEO of a company, advised four U.S. presidents, and was chosen to attend the founding convention of the United Nations. Fast Facts: Mary McLeod Bethune Known For: Bethune was an educator and activist who fought to improve the lives of African-Americans.Also Known As: Mary Jane McLeodBorn: July 10, 1875 in Mayesville, South CarolinaParents: Sam and Patsy McLeodDied: May 18, 1955 in Daytona Beach, FloridaSpouse: Albertus Bethune (m. 1898–1918)Children: Albert Early Life Mary Jane McLeod was born on July 10, 1875, in rural Mayesville, South Carolina. Unlike her parents, Samuel and Patsy McLeod, Mary, who was the 15th of 17 children, was born free. For many years after the end of slavery, Marys family continued to work as sharecroppers on the plantation of former master William McLeod until they could afford to build a farm. Eventually, the family had enough money to erect a log cabin on a small plot of farmland they called Homestead. Despite their freedom, Patsy still did laundry for her former owner and Mary often accompanied her mother to deliver the wash. Mary loved going because she was allowed to play with the toys of the owners grandchildren. On one particular visit, Mary picked up a book- only to have it ripped from her hands by a white child, who screamed that Mary wasnt supposed to read. Later in life, Mary said that this experience had inspired her to learn to read and write. Early Education At a young age, Mary was working up to 10 hours a day, often in the fields picking cotton. When she was 7, a black Presbyterian missionary named Emma Wilson visited Homestead. She asked Samuel and Patsy if their children could attend the school she was establishing. The parents could afford to send only one child, and Mary was chosen to become the first member of her family to attend school. This opportunity would change Mary’s life. Eager to learn, Mary walked 10 miles a day to attend the one-room Trinity Mission School. If there was time after chores, Mary taught her family whatever she had learned that day. Mary studied at the mission school for four years and graduated at the age of 11. With her studies completed and no means to further her education, Mary returned to her familys farm to work in the cotton fields. A Golden Opportunity Still working a year after graduation, Mary fretted about missing additional educational opportunities- a dream that now seemed hopeless. Ever since the McLeod familys only mule had died, forcing Marys father to mortgage Homestead to buy another mule, money in the McLeod household had been even scarcer than before. Luckily for Mary, a Quaker teacher in Denver, Colorado, named Mary Chrisman had read about the blacks-only Mayesville school. As a sponsor of the Northern Presbyterian Churchs project to educate former slave children, Chrisman offered to pay tuition for one student to receive a higher education- and Mary was chosen. In 1888, 13-year-old Mary traveled to Concord, North Carolina, to attend the Scotia Seminary for Negro Girls. When she arrived at Scotia, Mary stepped into a world very different from her Southern upbringing, with white teachers sitting, talking, and eating with black teachers. At Scotia, Mary learned that through cooperation, whites and blacks could live in harmony. Studies Study of the Bible, American history, literature, Greek, and Latin filled Marys days. In 1890, the 15-year-old completed the Normal and Scientific Course, which certified her to teach. However, the course was the equivalent of todays associates degree, and Mary wanted more education. She continued her studies at the Scotia Seminary. Lacking money to travel home during summer vacations, the principal of Scotia found her jobs as a domestic with white families for which she earned a little money to send back to her parents. Mary graduated from Scotia Seminary in July 1894, but her parents, unable to get enough money together for a trip, did not attend the graduation. Shortly after graduation, Mary boarded a train in July 1894 with a scholarship to the Moody Bible Institute in Chicago, Illinois, again thanks to Mary Chrisman. Mary took courses that would help her qualify for missionary work in Africa. She also worked in Chicagos slums, feeding the hungry, assisting the homeless, and visiting prisons. Mary graduated from Moody in 1895 and immediately went to New York to meet with the Presbyterian Churchs mission board. The 19-year-old was devastated when she was told â€Å"coloreds† could not qualify as African missionaries. Becoming a Teacher With no options, Mary went home to Mayesville and worked as an assistant to her old teacher, Emma Wilson. In 1896, Mary moved to Augusta, Georgia, for an eighth-grade teaching job at the Haines Normal and Industrial Institute. The school was located in an impoverished area, and Mary came to realize that her missionary work was most needed in America, not Africa. She began to seriously consider founding her own school. In 1898, the Presbyterian board sent Mary to Sumter, Carolinas Kindell Institute. A gifted singer, Mary joined the choir of the local Presbyterian church and met teacher Albertus Bethune at a rehearsal. The two started courting and in May 1898, 23-year-old Mary married Albertus and moved to Savannah, Georgia. Mary and her husband found teaching positions, but she stopped teaching when she became pregnant, and he began selling menswear. Mary gave birth to son Albertus McLeod Bethune, Jr. in February 1899. Later that year, a Presbyterian minister convinced Mary to accept a mission-school teaching position in Palatka, Florida. The family lived there  for five years, and Mary began selling insurance policies for Afro-American Life. (In 1923, Mary founded Tampas Central Life Insurance, becoming the companys CEO in 1952.) Plans were announced in 1904 to build a railroad in northern Florida. Aside from the project creating jobs, Mary saw an opportunity to open a school for migrant families- envisioning funds coming from the wealthy of Daytona Beach. Mary and her family headed to Daytona and rented a run-down cottage for $11 a month. But the Bethunes had arrived in a city where blacks were lynched every week. Their new home was in the poorest neighborhood, but it was here that Mary wanted to establish her school for black girls. Daytona Normal and Industrial Institute On October 4, 1904, 29-year-old Mary McLeod Bethune opened the Daytona Normal and Industrial Institute with only $1.50 and five 8- to 12-year-old girls, and her son. Each child paid 50 cents a week for a uniform and to receive rigorous training in religion, business, academics, and industrial skills. Bethune often lectured to raise funds for her school and recruit students, emphasizing education to achieve self-sufficiency. But Jim Crow was law and the KKK was again raging. Lynching was common. Bethune received a visit from the Klan over the formation of her school. Tall and hefty, Bethune stood resolutely in the doorway, and the Klan left without causing harm. Many black women were impressed once they heard Bethune speak about the importance of education; they too wanted to learn. To teach adults, Bethune provided evening classes, and by 1906, Bethunes school boasted a 250-student enrollment. She bought the adjacent building to accommodate expansion. However, Mary McLeod Bethunes husband Albertus never shared her vision for the school. The two could not reconcile on this point, and Albertus left the family in 1907 to return to South Carolina, where he died in 1919 of tuberculosis. School Growth Bethunes goal was to create a top-rated school where students would acquire the requisite needed to succeed in life. She provided agricultural training so that students would learn how to grow and sell their own food. Accepting everyone who wanted education caused major overcrowding; however, Bethune was determined to keep her school afloat. She purchased more property from a dumpsites owner for $250, paying $5 a month. Students hauled junk away from the place they named Hells Hole. Bethune also swallowed her pride and decided to solicit aid from rich whites. Her tenacity paid off when James Gamble (of Proctor and Gamble) paid to build a brick schoolhouse. In October 1907, Mary moved her school to the four-story building she named Faith Hall. People were often moved to give due to Bethunes powerful speaking and passion for black education. For example, the owner of White Sewing Machines made a large donation to build a new hall and included Bethune in his will. In 1909, Bethune went to New York and was introduced to Rockefeller, Vanderbilt, and Guggenheim. Rockefeller created a scholarship program for Mary through his foundation. Angry at the absence of healthcare for blacks in Daytona, Bethune built her own 20-bed hospital on campus. The consummate fundraiser hosted a bazaar, raising $5,000. Famed industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie donated. With this support, Bethune focused on acquiring accreditation as a college. Her proposal was rejected by the all-white board, who believed an elementary education was sufficient for blacks. Bethune again sought the help of powerful allies, and in 1913 the board approved junior-college accreditation. Merger Bethune maintained her Head, Hands, and Heart teaching philosophy and the overcrowded school kept growing. To expand, the 45-year-old Bethune hopped on her bike, going door-to-door soliciting contributions and selling sweet potato pies. However, the 20-acre campus still struggled financially, and in 1923 Bethune decided to merge the school with the Cookman Institute for Men in Jacksonville, Florida, which doubled student enrollment to 600. The school became the Bethune-Cookman College in 1929, and Bethune served until 1942 as the first black female college president. Women’s Rights Bethune believed that raising the status of African-American women was key to elevating the race; thus, beginning in 1917, she formed clubs championing the causes of black women. The Florida Federation of Colored Women and the Southeastern Federal of Colored Women addressed important topics of the era. A constitutional amendment granted black women voting rights in 1920, and an overjoyed Bethune got busy organizing a voter registration drive. This roused the ire of Klansmen, who threatened her with violence. Bethune urged calmness and courage, leading the women in exercising their hard-won privilege. In 1924, Bethune defeated Ida B. Wells, with whom she had a contentious relationship over teaching methods, to become president of the 10,000-strong National Association of Colored Women (NACW). Bethune traveled often, singing and speaking to raise money, not only for her college but also to move the NACW’s headquarters to Washington, D.C. In 1935, Bethune founded the National Council of Negro Women (NCNW). The organization sought to address discrimination, thereby improving every facet of African-American life. Advisor to Presidents Bethune’s successes did not go unnoticed. After she returned to her school in October 1927 from a European vacation, she attended a brunch at the home of New York governor Franklin Delano Roosevelt. This began a lifelong friendship between Bethune and the governors wife Eleanor. A year later, it was U.S. President Calvin Coolidge who wanted Bethune’s advice. Later, Herbert Hoover sought Bethunes thoughts on racial affairs and appointed her to various committees. In October 1929, Americas stock market crashed, and black men were the first to be fired. Black women became primary breadwinners, working in jobs of servitude. The Great Depression increased racial hostility, but Bethune ignored established mores by frequently speaking out. Her outspokenness caused journalist Ida Tarbell to deem her one of Americas most influential women in 1930. When Franklin Roosevelt became president, he created several programs for blacks and appointed Bethune as his advisor of minority affairs. In June 1936, Bethune became the first black woman to head a federal office as director of the Division of Negro Affairs of the National Youth Association (NYA). In 1942, Bethune assisted the war secretary during World War II in creating the Womens Army Corps (WAC), lobbying for black women military officers. From 1935 to 1944, Bethune advocated passionately for African-Americans to receive equal consideration under the New Deal. Bethune also assembled a black think tank for weekly strategy meetings at her home. On October 24, 1945, President Harry Truman chose Bethune to attend the United Nations founding convention. Bethune was the only black female delegate, and the event was the highlight of her life. Death Failing health forced Bethune into retirement from government service. She went home, maintaining only certain club affiliations, and wrote books and articles. Knowing death was near, Mary penned My Last Will and Testament, in which she summed up her lifes achievements. The will read, I leave you love. I leave you hope. I leave you a thirst for education. I leave you racial dignity, a desire to live harmoniously- and a responsibility to our young people. On May 18, 1955, 79-year-old Mary McLeod Bethune died of a heart attack and was buried on the grounds of her beloved school. A simple marker reads, Mother. Legacy Against all odds, Bethune greatly improved the lives of African-Americans through education, political involvement, and economic enablement. In 1974, a sculpture of Bethune teaching children was erected in Washington D.C.s Lincoln Park, making her the first African-American to receive such an honor. The United States Postal Service issued a stamp commemorating Bethune in 1985. Today, her legacy lives on through the college that bears her name. Sources Bethune, Mary McLeod, et al.  Mary McLeod Bethune: Building a Better World: Essays and Selected Documents. Indiana University Press, 2001.Kelley, Samuel L.  Faith, Hope and Charity: Mary McLeod Bethune. Xlibris Corporation, 2014.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

17 Reasons Why You Should Go to Class in College

17 Reasons Why You Should Go to Class in College Some days it can be flat-out impossible to find the motivation to go to class. Its a lot easier to come up with reasons not to: You havent had enough sleep, you just need a break, you have other things to do, theres something more exciting going on, the professor is bad, the professor wont notice, you wont miss anything - or you just dont want to go. Even if all of these excuses are true, its important to take a step back and gain some perspective about why going to class in college really does matter. 1. Skipping Class Is a Big Waste of Money Lets say your tuition costs $5,600 this semester. If youre taking four courses, thats $1,400 per course. And if youre in class 14 weeks each semester, thats $100 a week per class. Lastly, if your course meets twice a week, youre paying a whopping $50 for each class. Youre paying that $50 whether or not you go, so you might as well get something out of it. (And if youre going to an out-of-state public school or a private school, youre probably paying way more than $50 per class.) 2. Youll Regret It If You Dont Going to class is like  going to the gym: Youll feel guilty if you dont go but awesome if you do. You know how, on some days, its nearly impossible to make yourself hit the gym? But on the days when you do go, youre always glad you did? Going to class often works the same way. You might lack the motivation at first, but it nearly always pays off later. Make yourself feel proud all day for going instead of guilty all day for not. 3. Today Could Be the Day You Learn Something Life-Changing Your professor might mention an organization that sounds interesting. Later, youll look it up, decide you want to volunteer for it, and ultimately land  a job after graduation. Does that seem far-fetched? Maybe. Maybe not. You never know when inspiration will strike in college.  Set yourself up for it by going to class and keeping an open mind about what kinds of things you can learn about and fall in love with. 4. Remember That Youre Here Because You Want to Be Is college easy and lovely and enjoyable all the time? Of course not. But you went to college because you wanted to, and there are a lot of students out there who dont have the opportunity to do what youre doing. Remember its a privilege to be working toward a college degree, and not going to class is a waste of your good fortune. 5. Youll Learn What You Need to Know You never know when your professor is going to drop that critical sentence in the middle of the lecture: This will be on the exam. And if youre home in bed instead of in a seat in class, youll never know how important todays lesson really was. 6. Youll Find Out What You Dont  Need to Know Conversely, your professor may say something along the lines of This is important for you to read and understand, but it wont be part of the upcoming midterm. Thatll come in handy later when youre deciding where to focus your efforts when studying. 7. You Might Learn Something Interesting Maybe youre only taking the course to meet a graduation requirement, but you just might - gasp! - learn something interesting in class today.   8. You Can Socialize Before and After Class Even if youre still wearing your pajama pants and barely make it to class on time, youll likely still have a minute or two to catch up with some friends. And even if you just commiserate about how youre still recovering from the weekend, the camaraderie can be nice. 9. Itll Actually Save You Time When Youre Studying Later Even if your professor just goes over the reading, that kind of review will help solidify things in your mind. Which means the hour you spent in class reviewing material is one less hour you have to spend studying later. 10. You Can Ask Questions   College is different than high school in a lot of ways, including the fact that the material is more difficult. Consequently, asking questions is an important part of your education. And its much easier to ask questions of your professor or TA when youre in class than when youre home trying to catch up on what you missed. 11. You Can Get Face Time With Your Professor While it may not seem important now, its incredibly helpful for your professor to know you - and vice versa. Even if he or she doesnt interact with you much, you never know how your class attendance might benefit you later. If, for example, you need help with a paper or are close to failing the class, having the professor know your face when you go talk to him or her down the road can definitely help you make your case. 12. You Can Get Face Time With Your TA Its important for you to make yourself familiar to your TA, too. TAs can be great resources - theyre often more accessible than a professor, and if you have a good relationship with them, they could be your advocate with the professor.   13. Youll Get Some Exercise Getting There If you dont think your brain can get anything out of going to class, maybe your body can. If youre walking, biking or using some other kind of body-powered transportation to get around campus, youll at least get some exercise from going to class today. And thats a good reason to go, right? 14. You Can Talk to That Certain Someone Is class for your academic pursuits? Definitely, and those should always take priority. But it doesnt hurt if just so happen to be taking a class with a person you want to get to know better. Even if you both are commiserating about what else youd rather be doing, neither of you would be talking with each other if you didnt show up for class today. 15. Youll Be More Prepared for Upcoming Work Its hard to be prepared for upcoming assignments if you dont go to class on a regular basis. Can you wing it? Maybe. But the amount of time you spend trying to undo the damage youve done by skipping class is likely much more than the amount of time you would have spent just going to class in the first place. 16. You Might Actually Enjoy Yourself You went to college to expand your mind, learn all kinds of new information, learn how to think critically and live an examined life. And once youre done with college, you may never again get to spend so much time doing those things. So even on the days when its super hard to find a reason to go to class, persuade yourself to go by reminding yourself how much you enjoy learning. 17. You Want to Graduate Dont you? Because that might be difficult if you get bad grades, which is more likely to happen if youre not going to class. Remember: Investing in a college education is only worthwhile if you actually get the degree. And if you have student loans, theyre going to be a lot harder to pay back if youre not benefitting from the higher earning potential that comes with a college degree.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Drug and alcohol use in teens Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Drug and alcohol use in teens - Term Paper Example A good example is alcohol. It is highly important that people who are in their teens do not use drugs or alcohol as it will have a devastating effect on their bodies. This paper will examine this effect. First of all, one should point out that drugs, due to their nature, negatively affect the brain of a person – the organ which is still a mystery for the science (Scheier vii). Indeed, the nature of the drugs distorts the normal work of brain and it can hardly be restored to its fullest. In other words, it is important to keep in mind that drugs do harm to the body that can hardly be reversed, so if a person decides to take drugs, there is a little chance that one will be able to leave the path of addiction and become a normal individual once again. What is more important is that the minor harmful effects that the body might experience because of the drugs may last for a rather considerable amount of time (Hyde and Setaro 50). This means that one can not simply try drugs for on e time: the consequences which are unpleasant will keep appearing after the use. So, a person should understand that nothing is worth that. Indeed, one should acknowledge that unlike other substances, drugs influence the organism of a person on a much deeper level which makes them extremely dangerous. The â€Å"positive† effect that they drugs can be explained by the distorted functions of some organs; so, when a person takes drugs, one is deliberately tampering one’s body.